This stakeholder report is a submission by Privacy International, Social Media Exchange and Association for Progressive Communications.

Privacy International (PI) is an international human rights organisation that works to advance and promote the right to privacy around the world.

The Social Media Exchange (SMEX)is a registered Lebanese nonprofit that conducts training, research, and advocacy on strategic communications and human rights in the digital era.

The Association for Progressive Communications (APC) is an international organization and network with ECOSOC Status. Its mission is to empower and support organizations, social movements and individuals in and through the use of information and communication technologies.

Together PI, SMEX and APC wish to bring their concerns about the protection and promotion of the right to privacy in Lebanon before the Human Rights Council for consideration in Lebanon’s upcoming review.



The right to privacy

International obligations related to privacy

Areas of Concern

I. Lack of constitutional protection of the right to privacy

II. Communication surveillance

Lack of application of judicial oversight of administrative authorisation

Unauthorised bulk interception of data

Monitoring by non-state actors

Purchase of internet monitoring systems

Limiting access to internet and mobile services

Restrictions and limitation on anonymity

Lack of oversight of security agencies

Foreign spying

III. Data protection

Unique ID number e-government initiative and the impending deployment of biometric passports

Data retention

E-transaction bill


Year of publication


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